Sample Bibliography

Books Bibliography Examples

A book with one author:

Author last name, first name. Title of the Book. Publishing City: Publishing Company, year of publication.

Kershaw, Alex. The Bedford Boys: One American Town’s Ultimate D-Day Sacrifice. Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2003.

A book with two authors:

Author 1 last name, first name, and Author 2 first and last name. Title of the Book. Publishing City: Publishing Company, year of publication.

Klingaman, William K., and Nicholas P. Klingaman. The Year without Summer Darkened the World and Changed History. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2013.

A book with three or more authors:

Author 1 last name, first name, Author 2 first and last name, and Author 3 first and last name. Title of the Book. Publishing City: Publishing Company, year of publication.

Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. The American Pageant: A History of the American People. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010.

A chapter or article published in a larger book or anthology

Article author last name, first name. “Title of the Article or Chapter.” In Title of the Book, edited by Name(s) of editor(s), page numbers of the article / chapter. Publishing City: Publishing Company, year of publication.

Harris, Cole. “France in North America.” In North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent, edited by Robert D. Mitchell and Paul A. Groves, 65-92. Savage: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1990.

A book published electronically (called an e-book):

Author last name, first name. Title of the Book. Publishing City: Publishing Company, year of publication. URL where you can access the book.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Books Footnote Examples

A book with one author:

Bibliography:

Kershaw, Alex. The Bedford Boys: One American Town’s Ultimate D-Day Sacrifice. Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2003.

First time you footnote:

1 Alex Kershaw, The Bedford Boys: One American Town’s Ultimate D-Day Sacrifice (Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2003), 42-45.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Kershaw, The Bedford Boys, 52.

A book with two authors:

Bibliography:

Klingaman, William K., and Nicholas P. Klingaman. The Year without Summer: 1816 and the Volcano that Darkened the World and Changed History. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2013.

First time you footnote:

1 William K. Klingaman and Nicholas P. Klingaman, The Year without Summer: 1816 and the Volcano the Darkened the World and Changed History (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2013), 102.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Klingaman and Klingaman, The Year Without Summer, 203.

A book with three or more authors:

Bibliography:

Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. The American Pageant: A History of the American People. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010.

First time you footnote:

1 David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey, The American Pageant: A History of the American People (Boston: Wadsworth, 2010), 642.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, The American Pageant, 744.

A chapter or article published in a larger book or anthology:

Bibliography:

Harris, Cole. “France in North America.” In North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent, edited by Robert D. Mitchell and Paul A. Groves, 65-92. Savage: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1990.

First time you footnote:

1 Cole Harris, “France in North America,” in North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent, ed. Robert D. Mitchell and Paul A. Groves (Savage: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1990), 67.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Harris, “France in North America,” in North America, 69-70.

A book published electronically (called an e-book):

Bibliography:

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

First time you footnote:

1 Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 42, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

http://history.army.mil/html/books/007/7-5-1/index.html

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Kurland and Lerner, The Founders’ Constitution, 85.

Magazines and Newspapers Bibliography Examples

NOTE: There are three ways in which to access newspapers and magazine articles. One way is to go directly to the source and read the article in The New York Times or Time Magazine (either in the print version or on a microfilm or microfiche machine). However, many students access these resources through electronic databases that organize the articles and make them searchable. A third option is the access through the internet or a news site directly. If you view the actual newspaper or magazine, cite the article as a newspaper or magazine article. If you find the article in a database, cite that database. It does not make it a better or a worse source—it just communicates your research process more clearly.

Magazine article (in a print magazine)

Author last name, first Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Name, Date of publication, page number(s) where the article can be found.

Zakaria, Fareed. “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal.” Time, December 9, 2013, 29.

Magazine article (in a database)

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Magazine Name, Date of publication, page number(s) where the article can be found. Name of database where you found the article (accession number).

Zakaria, Fareed. “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal.” Time, December 9, 2013, 29. MasterFILE Main Edition (92663027).

Note: An accession number is a unique ID number for an article in a database. A librarian or teacher can help you find this.

Magazine article (on the Internet or a magazine site)

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Magazine Name, Date of publication, page number(s) where the article can be found. URL where the article can be accessed.

Zakaria, Fareed. “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal.” Time, December 9, 2013, 29. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2158654,00.html.

Newspaper article (in a print newspaper):

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Date the paper was published.

Kirkpatrick, David and Mavy El Sheikh. “In Egypt, a Chasm Grows between Young and Old.” New York Times, February 17, 2014.

Note: You will not always have a listed author. When that is the case, simply skip the author and begin your citation with the title of the article.

Newspaper article (in a database):

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Date the paper was published. Name of the database you used to find the article (accession number)

Gadoua, Renee K. “The Suffrage Message.” Syracuse New Times, August 21, 2013. Newspapers Source Plus (90149360).

Note: An accession number is a unique ID number for an article in a database. A librarian or teacher can help you find this.

Newspaper article (on the Internet or a news site):

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Date the paper was published. URL.

“Liner Lusitania Sunk by German Submarine Fleet Rushes to Aid.” Washington Times, May 7, 1915. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1915-05-07/ed-1/seq-1/.

Note: Many older or historic newspaper articles do not have listed authors. Obviously, someone wrote them, but it was not typical to credit them to an author the way that we do today. When this is the case, it is technically correct to cite the newspaper as the author. Therefore, the example above should read:

Washington Times. “Liner Lusitania Sunk by German Submarine Fleet Rushes to Aid.” May 7, 1915. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1915-05-07/ed-1/seq-1/.

Magazines and Newspapers Footnote Examples

Magazine article (in a print magazine)

Bibliography:

Zakaria, Fareed. “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal.” Time, December 9, 2013, 29.

First time you footnote:

1 Fareed Zakaraia, “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal,” Time, December 9, 2013, 29.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Zakaraia, “Big Fuss,” 29.

Magazine article (in a database)

Bibliography:

Zakaria, Fareed. “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal.” Time, December 9, 2013, 29. MasterFILE Main Edition (92663027).

First time you footnote:

1 Fareed Zakaraia, “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal,” Time, December 9, 2013, 29, MasterFILE Main Edition (92663027).

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Zakaraia, “Big Fuss,” 29.

Magazine article (on the Internet or a magazine site)

Bibliography:

Zakaria, Fareed. “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal.” Time Magazine, December 9, 2013, 29. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2158654,00.html.

First time you footnote:

1 Fareed Zakaraia, “Big Fuss Over a Small Deal,” Time Magazine December 9, 2013, 29, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2158654,00.html.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Zakaraia, “Big Fuss,” 29.

Newspaper article (in a print newspaper):

Bibliography:

Kirkpatrick, David and Mavy El Sheikh. “In Egypt, a Chasm Grows between Young and Old.” New York Times, February 17, 2014.

First time you footnote:

1 David Kirkpatrick and Mavy El Sheikh, “In Egypt, a Chasm Grows between Young and Old,” New York Times, February 17, 2014.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Kirkpatric and El Sheikh, “In Egypt.”

Newspaper article (in a database):

Bibliography:

Gadoua, Renee K. “The Suffrage Message.” Syracuse New Times, August 21, 2013. Newspapers Source Plus (90149360).

First time you footnote:

1 Renee Gadoua, “The Suffrage Message,” Syracuse New Times, August 21, 2013. Newspapers Source Plus (90149360).

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Gadoua, “The Suffrage Message.”

Newspaper article (on the Internet or a news site):

Bibliography:

Washington Times. “Liner Lusitania Sunk by German Submarine Fleet Rushes to Aid.” May 7, 1915. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1915-05-07/ed-1/seq-1/.

First time you footnote:

1 “Liner Lusitania Sunk by German Submarine Fleet Rushes to Aid,” Washington Times, May 7, 1915.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2“Liner Lusitania Sunk.”

Websites Bibliography Examples

Website

Author last name, first name. “Title of the Page.” Credit to the organization who published this page. Last modified date. Accessed date you accessed the site. URL.

“Magna Carta.” Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Last modified 2008. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp.

Websites Footnote Examples

Website

Bibliography:

“Magna Carta.” The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Last modified 2008. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp.

First time you footnote:

1 “Magna Carta,” The Avalon Project, Yale Law School, last modified 2008, accessed January 3, 2013, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2“Magna Carta,” The Avalon Project, Yale Law School.

Academic Journal Articles Bibliography Examples

Academic journal article (in a database)

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Journal the article was published in volume of journal, no. number of journal (date of publication): page number(s) of the article. Stable URL from the database where you found the article.

Ballek, Barry J. “When the Ends Justify the Means: Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 22, no. 4 (Fall 1992): 679-696. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27551031.

Academic journal article (in print)

Author last name, first name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume of journal, no. number of journal (date of publication): page number(s) of the article.

Toplin, Robert Brent. “Hollywood's D-Day From the Perspective of the 1960s and the 1990s: The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan.” Film & History 36, no. 2 (2012): 25.

Academic Journal Articles Footnote Examples

Academic journal (in a database)

Bibliography:

Ballek, Barry J. “When the Ends Justify the Means: Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 22, no. 4 (1992): 679-696. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27551031.

First time you footnote:

1 Barry J. Ballek, “When the Ends Justify the Means: Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 22, no. 4 (1992): 680. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27551031.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Ballek, “When the Ends Justify the Means,” 685-687.

Academic journal (in print)

Bibliography:

Toplin, Robert Brent. “Hollywood's D-Day From the Perspective of the 1960s and the 1990s: The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan.” Film & History 36, no. 2 (2012): 25.

First time you footnote:

1 Robert Brent Topin, “Hollywood's D-Day From the Perspective of the 1960s and the 1990s: The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan,” Film & History 36, no. 2 (2012): 25.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Topin, “Hollywood's D-Day,” 25.

Interviews Bibliography Examples

Interview (personal)

Last name, first name of person interviewed. How the interview was conducted. Date of the interview.

Harris, Jim. E-mail message to author. May 1, 2012.

Harris, Jim. Telephone interview by the author. May 1, 2012.

Harris, Jim. Skype interview by the author. May 1, 2012.

*For more information on conducting interviews please visit our Guidelines for Conducting Interviews for NHD Projects resource.

Interviews Footnote Examples

Interview - E-mail

Bibliography:

Harris, Jim. E-mail message to author. May 1, 2012.

First time you footnote:

1 Jim Harris, e-mail message to author, May 1, 2012.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Jim Harris, e-mail message to author.

Interview - Telephone

Bibliography:

Harris, Jim. Telephone interview by the author. May 1, 2012.

First time you footnote:

1 Jim Harris, telephone interview by the author, May 1, 2012.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Harris, telephone interview by the author.

Interview - Digital Conference

Bibliography:

Harris, Jim. Skype interview by the author. May 1, 2012.

First time you footnote:

1 Jim Harris, Skype interview by the author, May 1, 2012.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Harris, Skype interview by the author.

*For more information about conducting interviews please visit our Guidelines for Conducting Interviews for NHD Projects resource.

Archives or Manuscript Collections Bibliography Examples

Manuscript collection (if you go to a library and view the papers of someone you are studying)

Author last name, first name. “Name of the document.” Name of the collection of papers. Name of organization that owns the papers, Location of the library, state abbreviation.

Reagan, Ronald. “Farewell Address to the Nation, January 11, 1989.” Ronald Reagan Papers. Ronald Reagan Library, Simi Valley, CA.

Archives or Manuscript Collections Footnote Examples

Manuscript collection (if you go to a library and view the papers of someone you are studying)

Bibliography:

Reagan, Ronald. “Farewell Address to the Nation, January 11, 1989.” Ronald Reagan Papers. Ronald Reagan Library, Simi Valley, CA.

First time you footnote:

1 Ronald Reagan, “Farewell Address to the Nation, January 11, 1989,” Ronald Reagan Papers, Ronald Reagan Library, Simi Valley, CA.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2Reagan, “Farewell Address to the Nation.”

Encyclopedias Bibliography Examples

Well-known Encyclopedia

Article author last name, first name. “Article Title.” In Encyclopedia Name. Year published ed.

“Otto von Bismarck.” In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 2012 ed.

Encyclopedias Footnote Examples

Encyclopedia

Bibliography:

“Otto von Bismarck.” In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 2012 ed.

First time you footnote:

1 The New Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. “Bismarck, Otto von”. 2012 ed.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 The New Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. “Bismarck, Otto von”.

**Note: s.v. stands for the Latin term sub verbo which means “under the word.” I am citing my encyclopedia, and telling you which entry I used to find my information

Multimedia Resources Bibliography Examples

Audio recording of a speech or public statement (on the Internet)

Speaker last name, first name. “Title of the Speech.” Speech, Date the speech was given. Audio file, length of speech. Name of organization or site publishing this speech. URL.

Truman, Harry S. “First Speech to Congress.” Speech, April 16, 1945. Audio file, 18:13. Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3339.

Video recording of a speech or public statement (on the Internet)

Speaker last name, first name. “Title of the Speech.” Speech, Date the speech was given. Video file, length of speech. Name of organization or site publishing this speech. URL.

Johnson, Lyndon B. “Inaugural Address.” Speech, January 20, 1965. Video file, 13:45. American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/youtubeclip.php?clipid=26985&admin=36.

Video or documentary (on a DVD)

Title of the Documentary. Directed by Name of Director. Year of original release. City of production company: Company who produced the documentary, year this DVD was released. DVD.

A Distant Shore: African Americans of D-Day. Directed by Douglas T. Cohen. 2007. New York: A&E Home Video, 2010. DVD.

Video from a user-contributed or user-generated web source

“Title of the Posted Video.” Video file, length of the video file. Name of the website. Posted by Name of person or organization, Date posted. URL of the video file.

“How World War II Bomber Crews Worked.” Video file, 1:31:36. YouTube. Posted by History Channel, December 28, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sTB2J0RTkg.

Note: While there are many user-generated websites, you want to use them with caution. Remember, the beauty of sites like Vimeo and YouTube is that anyone can post to them. Be aware of who is posting the content. Recognized organizations (like the HISTORY® Channel or the National Archives) who post videos that are more reputable than those posted by an individual user. Realize that there are a lot of videos that are edited to fit the point of view of the person posting them, and they may or may not be accurate, faithful to the original, or complete.

Video from a web source

Creator / star last name, first name. “Title.” Filmed date (if known). Video file, length of the video file. Name of site or organization publishing the video. Date published online. URL.

Jackson, Don. “Dachau.” Video file, 50:37. The National World War II Museum. 2013. http://ww2online.org/view/don-jackson/segment-5.

Multimedia Resources Footnote Examples

Audio recording of a speech or public statement (on the Internet)

Bibliography:

Truman, Harry S. “First Speech to Congress.” Speech, April 16, 1945. Audio file, 18:13.   Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3339.

First time you footnote:

1 Harry S. Truman, “First Speech to Congress,” speech, April 16, 1945, audio file, 18:13, Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3339.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Truman, “First Speech to Congress.”

Video recording of a speech or public statement (on the Internet)

Bibliography:

Johnson, Lyndon B. “Inaugural Address.” Speech, January 20, 1965. Video file, 13:45. American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/youtubeclip.php?clipid=26985&admin=36.

First time you footnote:

1 Lyndon B. Johnson, “First Inaugural Address,” speech, January 20, 1965, video file, 13:45, American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/youtubeclip.php?clipid=26985&admin=36.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Johnson, “Inaugural Address.”

Video or documentary (on a DVD)

Bibliography:

A Distant Shore: African Americans of D-Day. Directed by Douglas T. Cohen. 2007. New York: A&E Home Video, 2010. DVD.

First time you footnote:

1 A Distant Shore: African Americans of D-Day, directed by Douglas T. Cohen (2007; New York: A&E Home Video, 2010), DVD.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 A Distant Shore.

Video from a user- contributed or user-generated web source

Bibliography:

“How World War II Bomber Crews Worked.” Video file, 1:31:36. YouTube. Posted by History Channel, December 28, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sTB2J0RTkg.

First time you footnote:

1 “How World War II Bomber Crews Worked,” video file, 1:31:36, YouTube, posted by HISTORY Channel, December 28, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sTB2J0RTkg.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 “How World War II Bomber Crews Worked.”

Video from a web source

Bibliography:

Jackson, Don. “Dachau.” Video file, 50:37. The National World War II Museum. 2013. http://ww2online.org/view/don-jackson/segment-5.

First time you footnote:

1 Don Jackson, “Dachau,” video file, 50:37, The National World War II Museum, 2013. http://ww2online.org/view/don-jackson/segment-5.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Jackson, “Dachau.”

Images and Maps Bibliography Examples

Photograph or image (on the Internet)

Artist / Photographer last name, first name (if known). Title of photograph or image. Type of image. Date (if known). Name of site or organization publishing the image. URL.

Lange, Dorothea. San Francisco, Calif., Apr. 1942 - Evacuees of Japanese Descent being Inoculated as they Registered for Evacuation, and Assignment, Later, to War Relocation Authority Centers for the Duration of the War. Photograph. April 1942. Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002719511/.

Published Map (reproduced online)

Creator last name, first name. Title of Map. Type of media (map, graph, chart). City of publication: Person/group who created the map, year published. Name of site or organization publishing the image. URL.

[June 8, 1944], HQ Twelfth Army Group Situation Map. Map. [England?]: Twelfth Army Group, 1944. World War II Military Situation Maps, Library of Congress. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g5701s.ict21003.

Images and Maps Footnote Examples

Photograph or image (on the Internet)

Bibliography:

Lange, Dorothea. San Francisco, Calif., Apr. 1942 - Evacuees of Japanese Descent being Inoculated as they Registered for Evacuation, and Assignment, Later, to War Relocation Authority Centers for the Duration of the War. Photograph. April 1942. Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002719511/.

First time you footnote:

1 Dorothea Lange, San Francisco, Calif., Apr. 1942 - Evacuees of Japanese Descent being Inoculated as they Registered for Evacuation, and Assignment, Later, to War Relocation Authority Centers for the Duration of the War, photograph, April 1942, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002719511/.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Lange, Evacuees of Japanese Descent.

Published map reproduced online

Bibliography:

[June 8, 1944], HQ Twelfth Army Group Situation Map. Map. [England?]: Twelfth Army Group, 1944. World War II Military Situation Maps, Library of Congress. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g5701s.ict21003.

First time you footnote:

1 [June 8, 1944], HQ Twelfth Army Group Situation Map, map. ([England?]: Twelfth Army Group, 1944), World War II Military Situation Maps, Library of Congress, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g5701s.ict21003.

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 [June 8, 1944], HQ Twelfth Army, map.

Court Cases Bibliography Examples

Cases and court decisions

Case Name, Number (Year).

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Note: Remember that you need to sort the sources into primary and secondary sources, and put them in alphabetical order by the first word of the citation (excluding “A,” “An,” and “The”).

Court Cases Footnote Examples

Cases and court decisions

Bibliography:

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

First time you footnote:

1 Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483, 1 (1954).

Every subsequent time you footnote:

2 Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483, 3 (1954).